–from Wilhelm Filchner’s account To the Sixth Continent—
“Ten days passed before the ice opened allowing us to make further progress through the leads. Predominantly southerly winds, occasionally of impressive strength, were probably the reason that the ice floes lay close packed for so long. . . .Nonetheless, despite our immobility we made good progress northwards due to the wind direction. . . . Thus in nine days we advanced 57 minutes north.
“On 30 November 1912, using the theodolite and sighting on the horizon we were able to establish that there was a slight swell. In early December we noticed for the first time that southerly winds would loosen the ice in the south and by contrast push it together in the north, a sign that there are large areas of opwn water. Hence we must soon get free! The pack around us is in almost constant, slight movement.”