Shackleton’s ‘Endurance’ Expedition, October 3, 1915: “New leads had appeared. . . .”

–from Shackleton’s account “South”–

”Our position on Sunday, October 3, was lat 69º 14′ S., long. 51º 8′ W. During the night the floe holding the ship aft cracked in several places, and this appeared to have eased the strain on the rudder. The forenoon was misty, with falls of snow, but the weather cleared later in the day and we could see that the pack was breaking. New leads had appeared, while several old leads had closed. Pressure-ridges had risen along some of the cracks. . .The ice had obviously attained its maximum thickness by direct freezing, and the heavier older floes had been created by the consolidation of pressure-ice and the overlapping of floes under strain. . . The movement of the ice was increasing.”


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